Deep packet inspection (DPI) to gain actionable intelligence on traffic flows. Policy rules to define how to manage traffic based on information gathered through DPI, network resources, subscriber profiles, and offered services. Policy enforcement to implement policy at a granular level in real-time across the network, applying policy rules to DPI data.
HSS basically plays its main function of authenticating the LTE subscribers with IMSI as the primary key for SAE-HSS and IMPU (IMS Public ID) + IMPI (IMS Private ID) for IMS VoLTE authentication. SPR is the repository for the subscriber’s policies and profiles for QoS management. Both HSS and SPR are the front-end elements because the back-end element, i.e., UDR, is the database that stores all information.
Telecom subscribers are getting smarter (so it’s not only the handset which is getting smarter haan!!!), demanding more and more and, at the same time many new players are entering the marketplace. To compete in this environment, operators have to not only maintain but also grow their part of the new value chain to gain loyal customers and adding new blended services which are ridding on their investment/infrastructure made during all those time
The main difficulty that content providers face is ensuring that their content is tailored to the market and location, as well as the individual subscriber’s preferences, to prevent it from becoming an annoyance to the subscriber. As the demand for video entertainment increases, so does the need for a superior quality experience (QoE), particularly when viewers are paying a premium or when advertising is involved, as advertisers aim to create a favorable impression.
Market dynamics are evolving, especially with mobile network operator market restructuring and prepaid market changes. A more drastic change in the SIM market was triggered by Apple’s eSIM announcement, which is aimed at adding more value to its own platform. MNOs typically have many platforms, starting with IN (OCS), billing, electronic recharge, physical vouchers, mobile money, mobile banking, and mobile financial and commerce services systems.
The 3GPP OCS is heading toward multiple charging access provisions for networks bearing different services. To meet network evolution demands, the OCS’s internal components should be further abstracted and modularized. Payments from various channels, i.e., proximity (POS, mPOS, NFC, thin SIM, ultrasound), the Internet, USSD, SMS, ATM, or agents, can be embedded as separate modules that will keep a tap and record of each transaction, create temporary wallets in buffers before moving to actual wallets, move temporary wallets from buffer to trash, and write logs.
The introduction of GSM represented a critical turning point in the development of cellular networks as it signified a transition from the early phases of cellular technology, which relied on analog communication methods, to sophisticated wireless communication approaches.