HSS basically plays its main function of authenticating the LTE subscribers with IMSI as the primary key for SAE-HSS and IMPU (IMS Public ID) + IMPI (IMS Private ID) for IMS VoLTE authentication. SPR is the repository for the subscriber’s policies and profiles for QoS management. Both HSS and SPR are the front-end elements because the back-end element, i.e., UDR, is the database that stores all information.
The main difficulty that content providers face is ensuring that their content is tailored to the market and location, as well as the individual subscriber’s preferences, to prevent it from becoming an annoyance to the subscriber. As the demand for video entertainment increases, so does the need for a superior quality experience (QoE), particularly when viewers are paying a premium or when advertising is involved, as advertisers aim to create a favorable impression.
The realm of mobile value-added services incorporates several messaging applications, including SMS, MMS, and instant messaging platformst. These services enable users to swap written messages and various forms of media and engage in live communication.