Deep packet inspection (DPI) to gain actionable intelligence on traffic flows. Policy rules to define how to manage traffic based on information gathered through DPI, network resources, subscriber profiles, and offered services. Policy enforcement to implement policy at a granular level in real-time across the network, applying policy rules to DPI data.
HSS basically plays its main function of authenticating the LTE subscribers with IMSI as the primary key for SAE-HSS and IMPU (IMS Public ID) + IMPI (IMS Private ID) for IMS VoLTE authentication. SPR is the repository for the subscriber’s policies and profiles for QoS management. Both HSS and SPR are the front-end elements because the back-end element, i.e., UDR, is the database that stores all information.
Time started for MNO to take charge and start innovating in order to survive. They also realise that they themselves are responsible for cannibalising their own voice revenue by encouraging revenue share based VAS services from VAS service providers rather than affiliating with OTT players.