Convergence – My last post created some typical requests from regular readers about simplifying the post. As most of the reader mentioned it was too technical and difficult to understand, “PCRF the Liberator for Mobile Data Charging”. Here I am again attempting to make every effort to address & taking care of the feedbacks. Re-writing this as an extended version of the last one with much more simple language and example from real life.


Data Charging – The Amount Charged to a Mobile Phone Account

It’s a learning for me as well on how to share what I know. How to Interface, with subscribers of different segments is not like a drag-and-drop GUI (Even though this will be difficult for some). Customers are 1st priority hence should be dealt like P1 service quality.


At present when MNO’s across the globe are hard-pressed for their revenues & pushed to increase service quality and increase new service portfolios. At the same time, MNO’s are choosing disruptive technology and approach to serve digital services to consumers. Focus on Mobile data users who are on rising in multiple folds.

Data charging is the amount charged to a mobile phone account for data access, which in most cases refers to Internet-based data. Data charging usually follow either of two models i.e Pay-As-You-Use(Less than 1% contribution from my own experience) or Pre-Set(Bundles etc which is close to 99%).

With the rise of smartphones, tablet PCs and the subsequent demand for web-based services, carriers have been trying to compete with each other with more attractive data charging schemes. With the pay-as-you-use data charging scheme, subscribers are charged based on either the total amount of hours used or the total amount of data downloaded.


Online Charging System (OCS) or any Typical IN System

MNO’s are on progress with great speed to ensure and answer them self on how they can create a digital experience that their customers are shouting about or asking for. MNO’s working hard to ensure service control points remain in their control but presentation and experience of self-control to consumers. To provide services including call access and signalling control, service logic management, Basic data operation and processing are few examples here.

The general front-end processor or handset is mainly used to exchange data between other communication entities, for example, the message transfer between the handset and the pre-delivery service agent or business rules in the provider’s system. Any Online Charging System (OCS) or any typical IN system, which is a uniform charging platform that helps MNO’s to charge voice, data, and multimedia services of fixed, mobile, and data networks.

The charging & billing system helps MNO’s to conform to the complicated operation environment, new services, different cooperators, and detailed customer types.

The charging & billing system can run on the Global System of Mobile Telephone (GSM) network, Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) network, Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) network, Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) network and Next Generation Network (NGN). In addition, the system can precisely realize the credit control to subscribers at a maximum. In this way, the risk of arrears can be reduced, and the revenue loss of carriers can be reduced accordingly for most of the services.

Sadly for data services, it lacks behind for need of today’s time so here comes PCRF to compliment & fix all the potholes for mobile data charging. Policy and Charging Rules Function i.e pcrf; that supports service data flow detection, policy enforcement and flow-based charging. PCRF is the part of the evolved packet core (EPC) and kind of saviour for the provider so that it can satisfy more policy control use cases, faster, on policy enforcement infrastructure.


Convergence – Intelligent System, Mobile Data Charging and PCRF

Convergence of – Intelligent System, Mobile Data Charging and PCRF was the biggest breakthrough & reason for the big smile on providers face. The IN (Charging and Billing System) system provides functions such as Product management, Resource management, Rating and billing, Credit control, Recharge centre, Call control and Customer care. The IN system is of good expandability and convergence.

Through the convergence with the external charging system, the IN system can provide a uniform charging platform, a uniform service management platform and a uniform customer care platform for prepaid subscribers, postpaid subscribers. The IN system provides a uniform charging platform and flexible charging policies for multiple telecommunication services, such as voice, short message, and data services used by prepaid and postpaid subscribers. The IN system supports telecommunication services, such as voice service, short message service, data service, ring back tone service, and recharging services.

The web browsing service provides online service through web protocols. The mobile subscriber accesses an application server through an internet gateway to obtain information. Subscribers browse web pages, news, music, videos and pictures through a mobile terminal The IN system supports the charging and rental of a subscriber based on the contents, traffic, and duration of the web browsing service in conjunction with business rules defined under pcrf.

The IN system provides accurate and flexible charging methods, such as prepaid charging, postpaid charging, and credit-based postpaid charging. Issues that critically assesses the vulnerability of 3G/4G charging system. Discovery of loopholes in policy practice and weakness in charging system architecture was fixed with pcrf. As result revenues moved in the correct directions. Tight control of service quality is critical for operators to establish new business models and monetize services.


Security of Charging and Billing Systems

Attacks or fraudulent injections on charging & billing systems i.e the toll-free data access attack; attackers can access any data service from the mobile phone for any period of time free of charge. It exploits the policy loopholes when the operator allows for certain free services. In the stealth spam attack, attackers will inject an arbitrarily large volume of spam data into the victim device, even after the target device has terminated its data service, thus fully unaware of such spam.

This attack exploits the architecture weakness of not using feedback from the user when making charging decisions, as well as features of Internet instant messaging applications (e.g., Skype or what’s app etc). Prototypes showed that both attacks were feasible and simple enough to launch over the operational 3G networks. In some experiments on two 3G networks from two US carriers showed that the undercharge or overcharge traffic volume can go unbounded.

Pay as you go and pre-set are two different models and serves 2 different segments of customers. Pre-set model (data bundling) is based on the size of the Web page or downloaded data, in kilobytes or megabytes. Thus, pages with only text are less expensive than pages with images. With the pre-set charging scheme, subscribers are given a maximum download limit (data volume or quantity of data) per month. For example, data plan features 10 GB of data access per month. Users can access the Internet as often as they desire until hitting the 10 GB limit.

However, there are no extra charges for exceeding the limit. But, the user’s download speed is curtailed until the next billing cycle (post-paid users) or disconnection of data services as soon as the user runs out of his limit (pre-paid users) unless user recharge again. Pay-as-you-use is the cheaper data charging scheme for users only occasionally going online. Users who are frequently checking and wants to be on facebook, what’s an app, tweeter, other messengers, browsing the web, watching YouTube and so on, this option turns to be killing expensive. Data bundles are the best for this category.


Data Science and AI-based Quality Control

Quality control enables operators to employ fair-use policies that limit subscriber service abuse and maintains network performance during peak traffic times. Undisputed & uninterrupted services in best-of-breed network policy control and class should be motive or actually is the motive for every service provider. The policy engine empowers hundreds of communications channels which are based on fair-use policies, congestion-free management solutions, quota-based plans, and wildly innovative prepaid and postpaid subscriber services.

Before commenting on heavy capex of billions of dollars on equipment and deployments, forward-thinking operators will carefully evaluate vendors and proactively measure the quality of service and policy management functions of their network devices. Validating mobile data service quality requires saturating the network with a high load of real-world mobile subscriber traffic, and measuring key performance indicators that identify the quality of experience. The rapid growth in mobile broadband has been a great success story, but one that has left in its wake many challenges, as well as opportunities, for mobile operators.

Rise and adoption of smartphones are major triggers for service providers to move in this direction. Smart devices in many markets now account for over half of new devices and total subscriber base, and extensive availability of applications and services, with video accounting for over half the traffic, has created a surge in the data load on the networks.


More the Traffic More the Knowledge

Accommodating the increased traffic volume can be an expensive proposition for mobile operators, and yet discouraging subscriber use limits the opportunity for revenue growth. Tomorrow’s hot app or new service request can show up without warning, and the service provider needs to be able to move quickly to take advantage of new opportunities and respond to competitive threats. As subscriber will demand the same service on the same day. It’s very impatient, service demanding at lower cost and always ready for new things market out there.

By productizing policy control and making service definition accessible, MNO’s needs to act when it’s required to act right now and now. With the service delivery engines, launching any new service should swift and does not require any waiting.

Fair charging, transparent charging should be the motive of any service provider at all times. Marketing communication, educating your customer on price plans and usage policy should be the clear agenda and ready to avail information. I gave this example in my post last year.

for an instance if you move your network from 2G to 3G or from 3G to 4G and tell your customer to use the faster connection and enjoy speedy data next day customer will complain that you (Service provider) stolen his money and would never realise that his/her data now would not last for 30 days due to speed it may vanish in 15 days as package bought was on the total data amount not unlimited data under time bound package.

When customer use 1GB data on the 2G network it may take 30 days (Just for argument sake) and on 3G it might vanish in 22 days and on 4G it might take just 10 days to be consumed and the customer says what!!!, where is my data!!, and accuse provider of stealing his data/money. When we advertise something like Limitless Possibilities and its very Easy To Use, this marketing language needs to be explained to customers in their own easy way as this looks very deceptively simple to use but impressively difficult for some.

The tight interdependency between DPI, policy rules and policy enforcement presents a strong case for integration, to enable mobile operators to leverage DPI data in defining and enforcing policy while keeping complexity under control and enabling a fast time-to-market deployment.

With PCRF capabilities and MNO’s service delivery engine, this is feasible. The PCEF (Policy and Charging Enforcement Function) select a PCC rule for each received packet by evaluating received packets against service data flow filters of PCC rules in the order of the precedence of the PCC rules. When a packet matches a service data flow filter, the packet matching process for that packet is completed, and PCC rule for that filter shall be applied.

MNO’s keep talking and advertising about 3G, 4G, 5G this G and that G and gives feeling to subscribers OMG but in reality subscribers smartphone rocks but providers network sucks. Well, what has happened and happening with tens of millions of customers around the globe is LTE Hell but they joined 4G LTE beautiful network. Rate capping and introducing expensive overage charges for bandwidth hoggers has become the norm.

By leveraging prepackaged building blocks and setting own conditions and values, can design and deploy a new service in minutes, without worrying about what’s happening behind-the-scenes. “Unlimited” legacy data plans by all of the main carriers have been eliminated.


Sign-tConclusion – Deep packet inspection (DPI) to gain actionable intelligence on traffic flows. Policy rules to define how to manage traffic based on information gathered through DPI, network resources, subscriber profiles, and offered services. Policy enforcement to implement policy at a granular level in real-time across the network, applying policy rules to DPI data.

The joint implementation of DPI and Policy enables operators to optimize network resource allocation, to segment their subscriber-ship effectively, and to create value-based, personalize services. This, in turn, may lead to improved network performance and utilization, a higher perceived value for the service, lower churn, and expanded revenue opportunities. When a service provider launches a super service that gives unlimited use of the latest app or just update fair-use policy, this needs time and clear communication.

======================= About the Author ===================

Read about Author at: About Me   

Thank you all, for spending your time reading this post. Please share your feedback/comments/critics/agreements or disagreement / remark for more details about posts, subjects and relevance please read the disclaimer.

Facebook Page                    Twitter                   Blog                     Linkedin Pulse     ==========================================================

Posted by V Sharma

Technology specialist in Financial Technology(FinTech), Photography, Artificial Intelligence. Mobile Financial Services (Cross Border Remittances, Mobile Money, Mobile Banking, Mobile Payments), Data Science, IT Service Management, Machine Learning, Neural Networks and Deep Learning techniques. Mobile Data and Billing & Prepaid Charging Services (IN, OCS & CVBS) with over 15 years experience. Led start ups & new business units successfully at local and international levels with Hands-on Engineering & Business Strategy.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s