Gated Recurrent Unit – The GRU is a variant of the Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) architecture designed to overcome the challenges posed by the vanishing gradient problem.

Gated Recurrent Unit

The GRU model demonstrates commensurate performance with the LSTM model, notwithstanding its less intricate architecture. The Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) functions via the integration of the memorization and hidden state components into a concatenated vector, effectively eliminating the requirement for separate memory cells. The GRUs offer two distinct gates, specifically the update gate and the reset gate.

Artificial Neural Network – Outlook

Neural networks were intentionally crafted to emulate biological neural networks and serve as algorithms dedicated to this specific objective. The basic concept of neural networks relies on connecting neurons according to the unique arrangement of the network. Initially, the aim was to create an artificial system with the ability to function like the human brain sadly its far from the reality.

Deep Learning – Introduction to Artificial Neural Networks

How Neural Network Algorithms Works: An Overview

In brief, Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are mathematical entities that were initially formulated to mimic biological neurons, although the degree of approximation remains open for further inquiry. Researchers are endeavouring to unravel the potential of a brain-computer interface.

The task of simulating the human brain with AI is a formidable undertaking and is unlikely to be achieved within the next half-century or so.

What are GRUs

In 2014, Kyunghyun Cho, Bart van Merrienboer, Caglar Gulcehre, Dzmitry Bahdanau, Fethi Bougares, Holger Schwenk, and Yoshua Bengio presented their introduction of a novel approach around GRUs.

By now we know the GRU is a unique neural network architecture that differs from conventional RNNs, aiming to understand the intricate and long-term connections within sequential data while maintaining a simpler structure as compared to the LSTM.

  • Hidden State: The idea of a hidden state is related to the outcome generated by the GRU component.
    • It signifies how data is shared with upcoming time phases or interconnected layers in the neural network.
    • The main factor that affects things is the way in which the original information combines with the changes in memory, which is determined by the update gate.
  • Current Memory State: The current condition of memory relates to the knowledge that has been remembered and conserved in the current moment.
    • The present iteration of the text is dependent upon the employment of the reset gate, which serves the purpose of regulating the relevance of past recollections, and the update gate.
    • This is responsible for supervising the quantity of new information that is meant to be assimilated.

Gated Recurrent Units (GRUs) have gained significant recognition for their efficacy in multiple natural language processing (NLP) undertakings, including but not limited to machine translation, sentiment analysis, and text generation.

The simplified structure of the GRUs renders it computationally less expensive than LSTM. The decision to select either long-short-term memory (LSTM) or gated recurrent units (GRU) hinges upon the particular task, dataset, and computational resources that are at one’s disposal, as each architecture may prove to be efficacious in distinct circumstances.

The Extra Gates Of GRUs

The foundational structure of the Gated Recurrent Units (GRUs) represents a recurrent neural network (RNN) architecture utilized within the realm of deep learning and also provides an enhanced computational advantage over the Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), affording it a distinct preference in specific domains.

  • Update gate: The update gate is an essential element that controls the preservation of past memories and, at the same time, determines the amount of assimilation incoming data can achieve in existing memory states.
    • This plays a vital role in the processing of cognitive abilities.
    • The current approach involves utilizing data obtained during the current timeframe along with the previous undisclosed state.
    • The key factor that mainly determines the effectiveness of a system is the update gate, a crucial element that controls the dissemination of previous knowledge and the combination of new data.
  • The reset gate : Assumes a crucial function in determining the degree to which preceding memories are obliterated or devalued, thus significantly impacting memory processing.
    • The regulatory mechanism that has been expounded upon effectively regulates the extent to which memories already formed are disregarded or eradicated.
    • The contemporary methodology comprises a comprehensive evaluation of both extant information and previously concealed variables.
    • The objective of identifying the specific components of antecedent data that carry weight.

Utilizing an update gate, the Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) effectively captures long-term dependencies within a neural network by selectively modulating the memory content. Furthermore, the Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) incorporates a reset gate mechanism to facilitate the elimination of redundant information within the model.


A key distinction between LSTM and GRU is that in the latter, the combination of memory cells and hidden states into a singular vector offers a more streamlined and effective architectural structure.

The utilization of an update gate in the GRU model offers benefits by allowing specific modification of the memory content. Integrating a reset gate into the model is crucial for enhancing its effectiveness as it enables the exclusion of extraneous prior information.

The challenge of disappearing gradients in sequential data is effectively tackled by utilizing the Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU), which utilizes gate mechanisms to regulate both the memory and hidden states. Using this approach, the GRU can efficiently grasp the connections among distinct components within the sequence information.

Example – Chess Game (Between me and Son)

Imagine me and my son playing a chess game on a digital platform. The platform has a GRU model trained on a dataset of various chess games. As I and my son make moves, the GRU processes the sequence of moves to learn the patterns and strategies employed by both of us.

For instance, let’s say in the previous games, I tend to favour opening with the “King’s Pawn” and my son often responds with the “Sicilian Defense.” The GRU captures these patterns and the evolving dynamics of our gameplay.

As the game progresses, the GRU continually updates its understanding of my moves and my son’s responses. When it’s my turn to make a move, the GRU generates a prediction for my next move based on the patterns it has learned. Similarly, it predicts my son’s potential moves based on his previous strategies.

This predictive capability adds an interesting twist to my chess match. I can anticipate each other’s moves to a certain extent, but I must also strategize and adapt as the GRU influences my gameplay predictions.

In this scenario, the GRU enhances our chess experience by providing insights into my and my son’s strategic tendencies, allowing us both to engage in a dynamic and evolving game of chess.

Some Examples of Neural Networks

There are several kinds of Neural Networks in deep learning. Some of them we have defined in our previous blog posts.

The human brain is an impressive feat of cognitive engineering, giving us the upper hand when it comes to coming up with original ideas and concepts. We’ve even managed to create the wheel—something that not even our robot friends could do! This shows just how far we’ve come in terms of evolution, proving that humans are true masters of invention.


Conclusion –  Undeniably, ANN’s and the human brain are not the same, and function and working are also very different. We have seen in the post above that The Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) represents a potential resolution to the challenge of vanishing gradients in sequential data through the utilization of gating mechanisms aimed at regulating the memory state and hidden state. Through the utilization of the aforementioned methodology, the Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) can proficiently comprehend the correlations and interdependencies present amongst various entities within the sequence data.

Feedback & Further Questions

Do you have any burning questions about Big Data, “AI & ML“, BlockchainFinTech,Theoretical PhysicsPhotography or Fujifilm(SLRs or Lenses)? Please feel free to ask your question either by leaving a comment or by sending me an email. I will do my best to quench your curiosity.

Points to Note:

It’s time to figure out when to use which “deep learning algorithm”—a tricky decision that can really only be tackled with a combination of experience and the type of problem in hand. So if you think you’ve got the right answer, take a bow and collect your credits! And don’t worry if you don’t get it right in the first attempt.

Books Referred & Other material referred

  • Open Internet research, news portals and white papers reading
  • Lab and hands-on experience of  @AILabPage (Self-taught learners group) members.
  • Self-Learning through Live Webinars, Conferences, Lectures, and Seminars, and AI Talkshows

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Posted by V Sharma

A Technology Specialist boasting 22+ years of exposure to Fintech, Insuretech, and Investtech with proficiency in Data Science, Advanced Analytics, AI (Machine Learning, Neural Networks, Deep Learning), and Blockchain (Trust Assessment, Tokenization, Digital Assets). Demonstrated effectiveness in Mobile Financial Services (Cross Border Remittances, Mobile Money, Mobile Banking, Payments), IT Service Management, Software Engineering, and Mobile Telecom (Mobile Data, Billing, Prepaid Charging Services). Proven success in launching start-ups and new business units - domestically and internationally - with hands-on exposure to engineering and business strategy. "A fervent Physics enthusiast with a self-proclaimed avocation for photography" in my spare time.


  1. Thank you for this wonderful writeup, it got very useful for me. LSTM and GRU have several advantages over the basic RNNs for time series applications. First, they can capture long-term dependencies better than RNNs, which tend to forget distant past inputs.


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