Abstract – Cross Border remittances(CBR) expected to rise about $0.8 trillion USD. Numbers here are real big and yes this is a big deal. But since most of the world’s population now has access to the Internet or mobile phones, it is just a matter of time before the scales tip to primarily digital versus in-person remittances. It is mostly an area of financial services that goes wholly unnoticed except by the population that use and rely on it. The remittance business is massive and massively important to the individuals and the countries that receive them, but in the face of other retail payments innovation CBR does not comes out well inspite such an important factor to the economies of many African and Asian countries. As per report from internet on Cross Border remittances. In 2015, $582 billion (In form of Cash remittances) was sent by migrants to relatives in their home countries. Of that total amount $133.5 billion originated from the United States of America.
Introduction – Remittances it is believed increase the money supply and stimulate demand for consumption and investment. Innovative competitors are entering the market with alternative remittance models that send money via the Internet, mobile phones, mobile wallets, and social networks, sometimes in combination with mobile money or virtual currencies, or repurposing the remittance payment rails. These new digital business models encompass the benefits of cost, customer experience, and convenience, and are poised to put consumers back in control of their money. Innovative ways of remittances shown the opportunity of remitting beyond money or cash. Remitting goods, services and professional services are now on mind and need of the time. Remittances play a very important role in eliminating poverty of a nation. The below description are some of the fundamental beliefs that determine the shape of the industry in different markets. The real success of International remittances depends upon product excellency, affordability, Convenience i.e ease of use, Reliability, customer trust and Speed.
Main Story – High rate of economic growth leads to sustained increase in the productive capacity of the economy through productive policies, which in turn leads to increasing employment opportunities in the country. This process allows a progressive absorption and integration of the unemployed and under-employed including skilled and un-skilled into expanding economic activities with high levels of productivity. In the process, poor may be able to achieve increment in their incomes through existing employment or shift to new jobs involving higher skills on higher wages. Money transfers are one product in a larger customer relationship. Successful financial institutions have a real commitment to this customer relationship. Innovation is also needed to meet challenge of unbanked and underserved populations. Transfers can be initiated at a agent, bank branch, Mobile handset, ATM, telephone call or online customer can transfer unlimited amounts for costs around 5$ (package) per transfer (depending upon the country)
An international remittance is a cross-border, person-to-person payment of relatively low value and with highest quality to provide excellent experience to sender and receiver . Quality” means speed, reliability, security, and convenience. New technology may enable better quality at lower cost but typically there is a trade-off. For remittances, low cost may often be the most important thing. Typically by migrant workers to their families. Especially from developed to developing countries money needs to be remitted; person-to person, low value – ie not commercial or wholesale payments. Domestic remittances also exist Recurrent – but typically made by individual transfers. For remittance service providers (RSPs), often indistinguishable from any other retail cross-border transfers. Success in the remittance business is measured by our ability to attract the customer’s wallet share over his lifecycle. Safe alternative to mailing a cashier’s check or money order. Funds in the remittance account are FDIC-insured until transferred to the Remittance Network Member bank.
On the side of regulation framework, central bank’s mind set and controls or too much of controls and framework can increase cost of formal remittances. Technology is primary factor to reduce cost and to have competition as far as possible as the secondary important factor. The principles are not a call for remittances to be regulated. Sometimes it may be more important to remove existing regulation. They do not aim to set specific service levels. Low price may often be more important than high level of service. Purpose is to tackle weaknesses in the market that inhibit competition (including poor regulation). The remittance business fundamentals cover different scenarios at Macro-level is scenario is used for planning tools to map the macro environment; Fundamental Beliefs, Industry drivers and sign posts and red flags. Market-level fundamentals to cover strategic benchmarking i.e. business architecture and street-level fundamentals to balanced scorecard indicators.
For Remittances either domestic or cross border i.e. international the drivers determine the shaping of the industry are; The ability of banks to match the cost and features of the informal hawala and non-bank payments businesses, The ability of banks to form alliances with domestic banks with strong networks in the host countries, Lifecycle of consumers propensity to purchase new financial products around lifestyle needs, Scale and efficiency in managing costs, Robustness of macro economic growth, Freer flow of cross border money, Strong payments engine and Cost of acquiring the customer. The excellency of remittance can turn zero-balance overnight sweep account that allows the remitter to send funds to family and friends. Beneficiary claims funds from one of the locations by accessing their account in the store by check, through an ATM, Mobile or online and no checking or savings accounts required. Bank account are not mandatory in todays time neither the monthly or annual account maintenance fees. No monthly remittance limits beyond daily limit and No initial deposit required.
Conclusion – Extraordinary thing about last week was what the second important piece of remittance-related news had to offer: Ant Financial Services Group of China will pay $880 million to buy MoneyGram, the second-largest global remittance firm, based in Dallas, Texas. As research has shown to be the case with cross-border remittances, even total amounts remitted are sensitive to price. An efficient domestic payment system infrastructure is key to reduce costs of remittance services, especially in receiving countries. Remittances are part of an individual’s access to financial services. A good remittance product improves value to the user in the short term and access to other financial products in the long term it also increases competition and could move transactions to the formal sector. Remittance is a cost driven business that emulates the transfer of cash across borders. Remittance is an increasingly important part of the economy from which we can build further programmes for our citizens overseas to grow their assets at home.
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