Deep Learning

Artificial Neural Networks – Debunking The Myth

Debunking The Myth – Before we embark on this high-level journey, let’s understand and take the fact for granted. Artificial neural networks do not work like a human brain besides limited to a simple simulation only. Can neural coding simulate the human brain if yes then up to what extent? Artificial neural networks are extremely powerful for doing excellent and a super-fast for computation but can we say this any better than the human mind for speedy mathematics.

 

Artificial Neural Network – Outlook

The Artificial Intelligence hype and too much usage of buzz words have created a “misinformation epidemic” which is entirely centred around artificial neural networks working like the human brain and machine learning. In reality its quite far away from the human brain works. ANN simply works like a mathematical model where its structure receives a signal from one side either inform of pattern or vector (for image). The output is calculated within hidden layers with corresponding weights to inputs.


Deep Learning – Introduction to Artificial Neural Networks

How Neural Network Algorithms Works: An Overview


ANNs are an emerging discipline and they are subject of research, study and emulation for the information processing capabilities of neurons of the human brain. Sadly many researchers are too quick and pivoting the “Human Brain and ANNs” under one pin tip which is causing & creating huge confusion for newcomers. There point in forms of discovery is entirely different though.

In short Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are mathematical constructs, originally designed to approximate biological neurons (not a bad attempt though). Scientists/researchers are trying to unlock the possibility of a brain-computer interface. Possibilities simulating the human brain is not an easy task and may remain like this for the next 50 years or so.

 

What is Deep Learning?

AILabPage defines Deep learning is “Undeniably a mind-blowing synchronisation technique applied on the bases of 3 foundation pillars large data, computing power, skills (enriched algorithms) and experience which practically has no limits“.

Deep Learning is a subfield of machine learning domain. In deep learning, the computer trains itself to process and learn from data. It is entirely concerned with algorithms inspired by the structure and function of artificial neural networks which are inspired by the human brain (inspired only pls).

Deep learning is used with too much ease to predict the unpredictable. In our opinion “We all are so busy in creating artificial intelligence by using a combination of non-bio neural networks and natural intelligence rather than exploring what we have in hand.

“I think people need to understand that deep learning is making a lot of things, behind the scenes, much-better” – Sir Geoffrey Hinton

Deep learning, also called a subset of machine learning which is a specialist with an extremely complex skillset in order to achieve far better results from the same data set. It purely on the basis of NI (Natural Intelligence) mechanics of the biological neuron system. It has a complex skill set because of methods it uses for training i.e. learning in deep learning is based on “learning data representations” rather than “task-specific algorithms.” which is the case for other methods

 

What Makes Human Brain So Special

Human Brain  – What makes the human brain so special? why it is so unique? such questions always arise when we start comparing with other species. It is a special/critical point of discussion for everyone and puzzling game of all times as well.  The human brain has cognitive ability/capacity which is super fit for inventions and discoveries. We created a wheel which Artificial intelligence or other animals cant do. The human brain is the biggest achievement in the evolution of living organisms.

How the human brain is designed and how it functions can not be covered in this post as I do not have any expertise in neuroscience. Out of curiosity, I am tempted to compare Artificial Neural networks with the human brain (With the help talk shows on such topics).

Its fascinating to me to know, how the human brain is able to decode technologies, numbers, puzzles, handle entertainment, understand science, set body mode into pleasure, aggression, art, etc. How does the brain train itself to name a certain object by just looking 2-3 images where ANN’s need millions of those.

NN & Brain

The human brain is a kind of supreme intelligence that gives directive, knowledge, decisions, critical thinking process and consumes lots of energy as compared to its size and weight.

The brain intelligence is not because of size or weight but the number of neurons. Why the human brain has the highest number of neurons (86 billion approx), well that question still doesn’t have any concrete answer yet.

Suzana Herculano-Houzel, a neuroscientist (video) found a novel way to count a number of neurons with the help of a “homogenous mixture” what she referred to as brain soup by dissolving the brain in it. In the video, you will find an interesting argument she made with the help of brain soup.

  1. The number of neurons relative to the brain (human) size/weighs with other primates may be consistent.
  2. Cerebral cortex –  The outer layer of the neural tissue of the cerebrum of the brain is the area responsible for higher cognition. It only holds around 20% of all our brain’s neurons. Interestingly a similar proportion found in other mammals as well. (From link)
  3. Brain size – the Bigger brain is not a better brain, otherwise cow, blue whale or elephant would have better cognitive abilities.
  4. The human brain is largest to the proportion of body mass – Not true.
  5. Higher the brain weighs, the higher the cognitive ability sadly not true again. The human brain weighs between 1.2kg to 1.5kg and the elephant got 4.5kg approx

The human brain grows in size as it starts consuming more calories and most likely credit goes to cooked food we eat.

 

Quantum Computing and Neural Networks

The role of quantum computing in AI and machine learning is now a hot discussion topic for every researcher in this field. Quantum neural networks would be able to learn much faster as compared to conventional computers or simply conventional computers can not achieve in any practical time limit.

Quantum NN’s would be able to process a million times more data in much less time. Still, all these pattern learning and detection would happen on the basis of the huge amount of data. Interestingly we do have ways to implement quantum artificial neural networks on IBM’s quantum computers on the cloud.

When it comes to the human brain it needs much less time and much fewer data to recognize some of the pictures/objects. In reality, we can not compare the human brain and neural networks, each of them have their unique feature and capabilities. Quantum computers open up the flood gate of opportunities. The ways for the empirical implementation of quantum artificial neural networks (in case its gonna happen).

The artificial neural network can create do calculations at a speed which the human brain cant but here the reference for learning is only based on the amount of data availability. In this age when we are talking about quantum physics, quantum computing, 6G network, Super AI and machine consciousness what else we can dream of our next/young generations. So two thoughts which come to my mind now

  • AI or ML of today is ZERO without data.
  • AI/ML cannot make mistakes so no mistake means it a cant rule because intelligence is not enough.

If AI/ML cannot make mistakes means it can not create or discover new ideas or inventions.  AI/ML can only apply one information pack to one set of data but the human brain can do infinite. I was watching some interesting ted talk shows and picked the best line which says “You cant google idea though you can google the information”.

 

Points to Note:

When to use artificial neural networks as oppose to traditional machine learning algorithms is a complex one to answer. It entirely depends upon the problem in hand to solve. One needs to be patient and experienced enough to have the correct answer. All credits if any remains on the original contributor only. In the next upcoming post will talk about Recurrent Neural Networks in detail.

 

Books Referred & Other material referred

  • Open Internet research, news portals and white papers reading
  • Lab and hands-on experience of  @AILabPage (Self-taught learners group) members.
  • Learning through
    • Live webinars
    • Conferences, Lectures & Seminars
    • AI Talkshows

 

Feedback & Further Question

Do you have any questions about Deep Learning or Machine Learning? Leave a comment or ask your question via email. Will try my best to answer it.

 

Machine Learning (ML) - Everything You Need To KnowConclusion –  Undeniably, ANN’s and Human Brain are not the same and function/working is also very different. We have seen in the post above that ANN’s don’t create or invent any new information or facts but the human brain does. ANN helps us to make sense of what’s already available in the hidden format. ANN takes an empirical approach on a massive amount of data to give the best and near accurate results.

Deep Learning, in short, is going much beyond machine learning and its algorithms that are either supervised or unsupervised. In DL it uses many layers of nonlinear processing units for feature extraction and transformation. It has revolutionized today’s industries by demonstrating near human-level accuracy in certain tasks. The task like pattern recognition, image classification, voice/text decoding and many more. Self-driving CAR is one of the best examples and biggest achievements so far.

 

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